The rapidly increasing carbon emissions are the main cause of climate change and global warming. Annual global emissions of CO₂ amount up to 40 billion tonnes, out of which a significant share comes from the transport sector and from fossil fuel combustion. The threat is undeniable and the adoption of electric vehicles appears to be vital at this point. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) report the number of electric vehicles must increase to 60% by 2030 and the sale of diesel and gasoline cars would need to end by 2035 to meet the emission reduction targets.
It must be addressed, however, that electric cars may reduce emissions while already out in the streets, but the lithium-ion batteries on which they predominantly run, pose a unique sustainability challenge. Electric car batteries require the mining of metals, such as cobalt, nickel and lithium that can have harmful effects to the environment. Furthermore, approximately 1/4th of the batteries contain graphite and carbon nanomaterials that are either from fossil resources or synthesized via energy rich chemical vapor deposition method. The rapidly increasing demand for these materials and an insufficient production capacity to satisfy the market’s needs lead to the importation of raw materials from countries like China, India, Brazil, etc. Europe alone is importing 500 000 tons of graphite per year.
But wherever there is a demand, there must be supply and more and more sustainable raw material providers are setting their targets towards the EV battery industry. Graphite and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are valuable battery components and they can be sustainable too.
One of the solutions for the green innovative approach is based on molten salt carbon capture and the process of electrolysis – the technology which has been known since the 1960s but has seen very little work done on it until very recently. This technology enables synthesizing sustainable carbon nanomaterials from CO₂ that have high specific surface area, superior conductivity and mechanical properties thus also showing good performance rates in batteries and supercapacitors.
We have gathered top 10 battery manufacturers who could help accelerate the transition to a zero carbon future and offer some suggestions for leveling up their battery properties and performance rates via sustainable carbon nanomaterials.
Italvolt is building a gigafactory in Europe with a capacity of 45 GWh by 2024, which will be able to produce batteries for 500 thousand electric vehicles per year. The battery startup has a recycling patented process named “RecycLiCo™” that recycles cathode materials like cobalt, nickel, manganese and aluminum. Recycling is definitely a greener approach, but is implemented only to the cathode materials. As far as the anode materials, a partial replacement with 1-5% of sustainable carbon nanotubes (CNTs) could make a huge difference. Recycled materials for the cathode and sustainable materials for the anode could be the magic combination for the green sustainable batteries Italvolt is aiming for!
Sustainability is the main focus for the Norwegian battery manufacturer who turns forestry residue, namely sawdust from pine and spruce, into super-activated carbon. UP Catalyst and Beyonder share the same vision for green batteries containing sustainable carbon. Carbon nanomaterials could be an ideal addition to the Beyonder production as they are capable of increasing the current battery longevity up to 5 times (more than 100,000 cycles) and speeding up the charging rate up to 10 times. The two philosophies combined could create a truly revolutionary product!
Where battery innovation meets sustainability one can find InoBat. The Slovakian company is producing lithium-ion batteries based on nickel rich chemistry with key features such as being lightweight and small size. The company prioritizes the use of recycled and renewable materials hence carbon nanomaterials and graphite produced out of CO₂ could be great additives to their production. InoBat’s technology-led approach aims to boost battery’s energy density to a goal of 330Wh/kg and 1,000Wh/I by the end of 2023. Carbon nanotubes are very lightweight with a density about one quarter than that of steel while having tensile strength approximately 100 times greater. Therefore, further decrease in the weight of their batteries can make Inobat the leader in lightweight custom-made batteries with the market’s top electrical conductivity.
Tesla could not be missing from this list for obvious reasons. Tesla is at the frontier of next-generation mobility leading the global EVs sales and holding an important share of the energy storage market. Their latest announcement to use lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries in their standard-range cars shook things up in the market. LFP batteries have clear benefits compared to cobalt-nickel-aluminum ones. In particular they are safer, have larger capacity and are eco-efficient. Their only disadvantage is lower range because the LFP cells are less energy-dense.This could be overcome by the use of graphite-like carbon coating containing 5-10% carbon nanotubes, which can also improve the electrochemical capacity of the battery.
The use of sustainable graphite can also be applied to lithium-ion batteries. Think of their most known model, Tesla S, which broke record sales worldwide. Tesla model S battery range (575 km) can be doubled with a partial replacement of 1-5% conventional graphite to UP Catalyst’s sustainable one. Magic, huh?
The Swedish battery manufacturer NorthVolt is a true advocate for renewable energy and clean battery production.The company’s goal is to manufacture 50% of the batteries with recycled material and to reduce their carbon footprint up to 80% by 2030. Northvolt’s mission to deliver the world’s greenest lithium-ion battery with a minimal CO₂ footprint is perfectly aligned with that of UP Catalyst. The Estonian startup produces 1kg of sustainable carbon nanomaterial out of 3,7 kg-s of CO₂. When adding Northvolt’s commitment to power cell production with renewable energy the overall battery production line could even become carbon negative.
CATL, the Chinese battery systems manufacturing giant, has recently announced their new battery based on sodium-ion technology. According to CATL, sodium-ion cells feature an energy density of 160Wh/kg, currently the highest in the world for these kinds of batteries. Sodium-ion batteries are notoriously known for their low-energy density and limited charging cycles. Enriching cathodes of such batteries with hard carbon nanomaterials can increase the lifecycle and density of the battery up to several times.
Leading the way in the UK with a worldwide reputation, BritishVolt is fully committed to creating environmentally friendly, low carbon lithium-ion batteries that push the planet ahead on the quest to net-zero target. Their 30GWh Gigaplant in Northumberland is located next to an abundance of renewable energy which helps to lead the UK to low carbon battery production. Part of their green approach is recycling the batteries in order to reuse the raw materials. To further reduce their carbon footprint already during the production process it would be highly recommended to use sustainable carbon nanomaterials and graphite. The main advantage of the technology is that it does not increase the cost of production for the manufacturers – UP Catalyst can provide a product with better price, sustainably.
It seems like Norway is at the cutting edge of innovative and sustainable battery technology, making FREYR the third Norwegian manufacturer in our list. FREYR produces safe, environmentally friendly lithium-ion based cells for various energy applications while minimizing CO₂ emissions and energy consumption in the production chain. Their battery design features the use of graphite and cathode active materials (CAMs), which are mined in northern Norway.
To become a truly sustainable battery manufacturer, the company should consider using sustainably produced graphite. UP Catalyst has demonstrated that their technology enables synthesizing carbon nanomaterials that have high specific surface area, superior electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, thus also good performance in batteries, supercapacitors and fuel cells.
Another distinguished Norwegian battery company, Morrow, plans to establish a giga-scale battery cell manufacturing site and produce lithium manganese nickel oxide (LMNO) batteries for automotive, maritime and grid industries. By substituting cobalt with a cheaper manganese, they plan to achieve cost effectiveness and sustainability. Manganese oxide, which is used in LMNO batteries, however, lacks good electrical conductivity and is brittle. These drawbacks can be eliminated with the use of CNTs. MnO2 electrodes can be coated with CNTs to improve the strength of such electrodes and improve the electrode’s ability to conduct current.
Last but definitely not the least, Custom Cells produce battery cells and energy storage prototypes for demanding applications. When lithium-ion battery production seems like a challenge, they have the answer. As their name declares, their products are custom made to their client’s special needs. The unique properties of their batteries have been appreciated also by Porsche, one of their most known clients. Apart from the electric vehicle industry, they provide energy storage solutions for medical applications. In the latter, small lightweight batteries with high longevity and energy density are crucial, making sustainable carbon nanotubes (CNTs) a smart additive. When CNTs are used in the anode, it is proven that the lithium-ion capacities exceed 1000 mA h g−1, which is a major improvement compared to conventional ones. It takes only a partial replacement 1-5% to see major improvements in the battery’s characteristics.
In the challenging times of climate crisis both battery manufacturers and raw material suppliers need to commit to sustainable practices, considering both the environment and their customers. Being sustainable is not a trend; It should be the baseline of every business. It should be their common duty to provide innovative solutions that will lead to a greener future, as sustainable development is our only way to avoid drastic climate changes.